Sets in Python: An In-depth Guide

Sets are a powerful data structure in Python used to store collections of unique elements. In this article, we will explore sets in Python, covering set creation, accessing elements, modifying sets, set operations, set methods, and providing practice exercises to reinforce your understanding.

1. Creating Sets:

Sets in Python are created by enclosing comma-separated elements within curly braces { }. Alternatively, you can use the set() constructor to create a set from an iterable.


my_set = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
print("Set:", my_set)


Set: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

2. Accessing Elements in Sets:

Since sets are unordered collections, there is no index-based access to individual elements. However, you can iterate over the elements of a set using a for loop.


my_set = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
for element in my_set:



3. Modifying Sets:

Sets are mutable, meaning you can add or remove elements from them. You can use methods like add(), remove(), discard(), and pop() to modify sets.


my_set = {1, 2, 3}
my_set.discard(5)  # Does not raise an error if the element is not present
popped_element = my_set.pop()

print("Modified set:", my_set)
print("Popped element:", popped_element)


Modified set: {1, 3, 4}
Popped element: 1

4. Set Operations:

Sets support various operations like union, intersection, difference, and symmetric difference. These operations allow you to perform set-related computations efficiently.


set1 = {1, 2, 3}
set2 = {3, 4, 5}

union_set = set1.union(set2)
intersection_set = set1.intersection(set2)
difference_set = set1.difference(set2)
symmetric_difference_set = set1.symmetric_difference(set2)

print("Union set:", union_set)
print("Intersection set:", intersection_set)
print("Difference set:", difference_set)
print("Symmetric difference set:", symmetric_difference_set)


Union set: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
Intersection set: {3}
Difference set: {1, 2}
Symmetric difference set: {1, 2, 4, 5}

5. Set Methods:

Python provides a range of built-in methods specifically for sets. These methods offer functionality like adding elements, removing elements, checking for membership, and more.


my_set = {1, 2, 3}
is_element_present = 3 in my_set
set_size = len(my_set)

print("Modified set:", my_set)
print("Is element present:", is_element_present)
print("Set size:", set_size)


Modified set: {1, 3, 4}
Is element present: True
Set size: 3

Practice Exercises:

  1. Write a program that takes two sets as input and returns a set containing the elements that are common to both sets.
  2. Create a set of colors. Write a program that asks the user to enter a color and checks if it exists in the set.
  3. Given two sets, write a program to check if one set is a subset of the other.
  4. Write a program that takes a list of numbers as input and removes all duplicates, then converts the list into a set, and finally converts it back to a list.
  5. Create two sets of numbers. Write a program that finds the elements present in the first set but not in the second set.


Sets in Python are an essential tool for managing collections of unique elements. Understanding how to create sets, access elements, modify sets, perform set operations, and utilize set methods will enhance your Python programming skills. By practicing the provided exercises, you can reinforce your knowledge and proficiency with sets in Python.

Happy Coding!

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